Stored Grain Pests Identification – The Back Pocket Guide

Grain Storage Pests

This identification guide provides a snapshot of common pests found in stored grain in Australia. The tolerance for live storage pests in grain sold off-farm either for the domestic, humanconsumption market or for the export market is nil. With more grain being stored on-farm growers need to identify pests early and monitor – at the very least – monthly. Regular inspection by sieving grain from the top and bottom of silos will provide an early warning of insects present.

Identification of common pests of stored grain

Lesser Grain Borer

A serious pest of most stored grains: the Lesser Grain Borer has developed resistance to a number of grain insecticides.


  • Dark brown cylindrical shaped beetle (up to 3mm long) with club-like antennae
  • Viewed from the side the beetle’s mouth parts and eyes are tucked underneath the thorax (chest)
  • Adult beetles are strong flyers.


  • Life cycle completed in four weeks at 35°C and seven weeks at 22°C. Breeding stops below 18°C
  • Females lay between 200 – 400 eggs on grain surface. Young larvae (white with brown heads) initially feed outside then bore into the grain
  • Adults live for 2 – 3 months.


  • Their habit is to remain hidden in grain. Regular sampling and sieving is required for detection.

Rust-Red Flour Beetle

Commonly found in stored cereal grain, processed grain products, oilseeds, nuts and dried fruit.


  • Adult beetles (3 – 4.5mm long) bright reddish-brown in colour
    when young and a darker brown when older
  • Three larger segments on end of end of antennae
  • Similar species: Tribolium confusum – confused flour beetle, more
    common in cool, temperate regions.


  • Life cycle completed in 4 weeks at 30°C, 11 weeks at 22°C and
    reproduction stops below 20°C
  • Adults live from 200 days to 2 years and fly in warm conditions
  • Up to 1000 eggs per female, loosely scattered throughout the
  • Cream-coloured larvae feed externally on damaged grain
  • Beetles infest whole grain, but breed more successfully on
    processed products (i.e. flour).


  • Beetles move quickly and are strong flyers. When in low numbers
    use sieving and probe traps to detect
  • Prefered habit is around storage areas with poor hygiene, broken grain, gradings or bulk cottonseed.

Rice Weevil

Major pest of whole cereal grains.


  • Adults are dark brownish black (2 – 4mm long) with a long weevil ‘snout’
  • Have four small light coloured patches on its rear wing covers
  • Rarely flies, but climbs vertical surfaces (e.g. glass jar)
  • Similar species: Sitophilus zeamais – maize weevil,
    and Sitophilus granarius – granary weevil.


  • Adults live 2-3 months
  • Larvae generally not seen – they feed and develop inside single grains
  • Life cycle completed in four weeks at 30°C, 15 weeks at 18°C, breeding stops below 15°C.


  • Under warm conditions or when grain is moved rice weevils are often observed climbing out of grain up vertical surfaces. Sieving & probe traps recommended to detect low numbers.

Flat Grain Beetle

Infests most stored grain and feeds on damaged grain. Some populations have high levels of phosphine resistance.


  • Smaller than other major stored grain pests (2mm long), very flat,reddish brown colour with long thin antennae
  • Fast moving, seeking cover under grain or trash
  • Adults fly readily and can live for several months
  • C. ferrugineus most common in Australia, but there are several closely related Cryptolestes species with similar appearance.


  • Life cycle completed in 4 weeks at 30 – 35°C with moist conditions, 13 weeks at 20°C, breeding stops at 17.5°C
  • Larvae, with characteristic tail and horns, feed and develop externally on damaged grains
  • Females lay up to 300 eggs loosely in the grain stack.


  • Sieving and probe traps usually required for detection
  • Some populations of flat grain beetles have developed very high levels of phosphine resistance. Send in insect samples for testing after a fumigation failure.

Saw-Toothed Grain Beetle

Infests cereal grains, oilseeds, processed products, peanuts and dried fruits.


  • Dark brown-black beetle (up to 3mm long), fast moving
  • Thorax (chest) has saw-toothed pattern on each side and three distinct ridge lines on top
  • Adults climb vertical surfaces (glass jar) and fly in warm conditions.


  • Prefers damaged or processed grain to establish in significant numbers
  • Adults can live for several months, females laying 300 – 400 eggs loosely throughout the grain. White larvae feed and develop externally 
  • Life cycle completed in 3 weeks at 30 – 33°C, 17 weeks at 20°C, reproduction stops below 17.5°C.


  • Sieving and probe traps are recommended for detection
  • Has developed resistance to a number of grain insecticides.

Psocids – Booklice

Infests a wide range of grains, commodities and storage facilities.


  • Very small, soft-bodied and opaque, pale coloured (up to 1mm long), often appear as a ‘moving carpet of dust’ on grain or storage structures
  • A secondary pest, feeding on damaged grain and moulds
  • There are three main species of psocids in Australia, often in mixed populations.


  • Thrive under warm, moist conditions – optimum 25°C and 75% relative humidity. Life cycle 21 days
  • Eggs are laid on grain surface, hatching to nymphs that moult through to adult stage.


  • Warm, humid conditions increases activity. Usually observed in storage or on grain surfaces. Sample and sieve to detect when in low numbers.

BRUCHIDS: Cowpea weevils

Callosobruchus spp are pests of most pulse crops, including mungbeans, cowpeas, field peas, chickpeas, soybeans and lentils.


  • Adults (up to 4mm long), emerge through perfectly round holes in the seed
  • Globular, tear-shaped body is reddish brown with black and grey markings
  • Wing covers (elytra) do not fully cover the abdomen
  • Adults have long antennae, climb vertical surfaces (glass jar) and are strong flyers.


  • Adults do not feed, but lay 100 white eggs clearly visible on the outside of seed. Adult short lifespan 10 –12 days. Unlike most storage pests, adults may also lay eggs on mature seed pods in a standing crop
  • Larvae feed and develop within individual seeds and emerge as adults leaving a neat round hole.


  • A common problem in warmer months for mungbeans.
    Fortnightly thorough sampling and sieving is important to prevent serious losses.

Pea Weevil

Both a field pest and storage pest (appears in storage after emergence). In WA it is a major pest of field peas.


  • Adult globular body length (4 – 5mm long) with long legs and antennae
  • Wings (elytra) are patterned with white/cream spots
  • Do not breed in stored dry peas, adults lay and glue eggs onto pods in standing pea crops before harvest
  • Adult emerges through a neat round hole in the seed
  • Adults are strong flyers, they reappear in spring to visit flowers to feed on the nectar then seek out new field peas crops to lay eggs.


  • Hatching larvae bore through the seed pod and into a single seed where they feed, grow and pupate
  • Breed one generation per year. Adult is long-lived and overwinters but does not feed on field peas.


  • Adults migrate into crops from seed sources and nearby trees where they shelter under the bark
  • Field peas should be regularly checked, in and around the crop edges when first pods are forming using a sweep net when temperatures are above 18°C
  • Check pea seed for neat round holes (evidence that adults have emerged).

MOTHS: Angoumois Grain Moth

A pest of whole cereal grains which only infests surface layers of bulk-stored grains. Infestation of standing maize crops before harvest is quite common, occasionally in other cereal crops.


  • Silvery grey to grey brown wings which taper to a point
  • Wings have a long fringe of fine hairs along the posterior edge
  • Adults (5 – 7mm long) are unable to penetrate grain, therefore only infest surface layers of bulk grain.


  • Adult moths do not feed but lay 150 – 300 eggs on or near the grain surface. This pest does not create webbing
  • Larvae burrow into a single grain and feed and develop until the adult moth emerges in 10 – 14 days through a visible hole
  • Life cycle takes around 5 – 7 weeks in warm conditions.


  • Take regular monthly samples and look for moths near grain surface. When adults emerge pupal cases are often found protruding from grain.

Indian Meal Moth

A pest in flour mills, processing plants, dried fruit and on the surface of all types of grains.


  • Adults (5 – 7mm long), distinctive bicoloured wings – dark reddish brown on rear half of the wing and grey at the front.


  • Female month lay 200 – 400 eggs on the foodstuff
  • Larvae create webbing as they feed. They then pupate in several grains webbed together in a clump
  • In summer life cycle takes about 4 weeks.


  • Take regular monthly samples and look for webbing and moths near grain surface
  • Also check in residues on grain harvesting and handling equipment.

Warehouse Moths

A pest of flour mills, food processing plants, cereal grains and oilseeds.


  • Adult moth body length is 8 – 10mm
  • Moth has grey wings with many fine, dark wavy markings, including lighter stripes extending horizontally across each forewing
  • Extensive webbing created by larvae is visible on the grain surface.


  • Adult moths do not feed and are short-lived. Female lays between 100 – 270 eggs over a two week period on or near grain
  • Caterpillar is coloured light pink with a small black spot at the base of each hair
  • Full life cycle 30 days under ideal conditions, 30°C and 75% relative humidity.


  • Take regular monthly samples and look for webbing and moths near grain surface. All moths are typically active at dusk and dawn.

Phosphine-Resistant Insects

  • Saw-Toothed Grain Beetle and Lesser Grain Borer have developed some resistance to a number of grain insecticides.
  • Flat Grain Beetle: some populations (Rusty Grain Beetle) have developed high level of phosphine resistance.
  • A range of stored grain insects are becoming harder to kill with phosphine fumigations.
  • Threatens exports, as phosphine may become ineffective against some pests.
  • Poor fumigation practices increase resistance (e.g. repeated fumigations in unsealed or poorly sealed storages).
  • Strong phosphine resistance is also found in overseas countries.
  • Live insects detected following fumigation should be tested for resistance.
  • Resistant insects can fly between stores or be transported in machinery.



The following pests have serious potential impact on the value of grain if detected in Australia. If you see anything unusual, report it to your local state department of primary industries or phone the Exotic Plant Pest Hotline, 1800 084 881

Karnal bunt

(Tilletia indica)

  • Can infect wheat, durum and triticale.
  •  Usually only part of each grain is affected. Infected stored grain will have a sooty appearance and will crush easily, leaving a black powder.
  • Infected grain often has a rotten fish smell, flour quality is seriously reduced.
  • Symptoms are similar to common bunt.

Khapra beetle

(Trogoderma granarium)

  • Attacks most stored grains.
  • Larvae are covered in fine hairs.
  • Looks identical to the warehouse beetle to the naked eye.
  • Causes grain loss in storage.
  • Larvae skins contaminate grain and cause allergies on consumption.
  • Phosphine fumigation is not reliably effective.

How to monitor and identify grain pests

  • Identify pests early by regular fortnightly/monthly sampling
  • Sieve (with 2mm mesh) grain samples taken from the top and bottom of stores onto a white tray. Hold tray out in sunlight to warm for 10 to 20 seconds to encourage insect movement to identify them.
  • Also use grain probes or pitfall traps to monitor for insects. These are pushed into the grain surface and then pulled up for fortnightly/monthly inspection. Place 1 or 2 traps in the top of a silo or several traps in a grain shed.
  • If live insects are found, identify them and select the appropriate treatment for the grain type and insect. Always check product labels. Ensure potential grain buyers & end-users also accept treatments selected.

To check insects for resistance, send samples for testing


  • Use a small, strong plastic container which is well sealed. DO NOT provide air holes – insects will escape
  • Place 20 to 100 insects with clean untreated grain into container
  • Do not overfill the container – leave some air space
  • Label container with the date, your name and the silo/storage identification
  • Provide all your contact details (address, phone and email) and a brief explanation of why you are seeking a resistance test, the storage type and details of any
    grain treatments details
  • If possible post early in the week so the insects are not left in the mail over the weekend.


Dr Manoj Nayak
Ecosciences Precinct
GPO Box 267
Brisbane Qld 4001

Please phone 02 6938 1605 before sending sample
Dr Joanne Holloway
NSW DPI / Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute
Pine Gully Rd
Wagga Wagga NSW 2650

David Cousins
DPIRD Entomology
3 Baron-Hay Court
South Perth WA 6151
For WA Biosecurity only WA insects to be sent to this lab!

DPI&F note: Grain Storage Identification of insect pests

stored grain pest mites

Grain Storage Identification of insect pests

Ken Bullen, DPI&F, Plant Science, Toowoomba, Qld..

Why identify stored grain pests ?

Most insect control methods for stored grain work against all species. So you don’t need to identify the storage pests to make decisions about most control methods. But if you intend spraying grain with insecticides you may need to know which species are present if:

  • a previous application has failed and you want to know whether resistance was the reason – if more than one species survived, resistance is unlikely to be the cause
  • you intend using a residual protectant to treat infested grain – pyrimiphos-methyl, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos-methyl are ineffective against lesser grain borer, and pyrimiphos-methyl and fenitrothion are generally ineffective against sawtoothed grain beetle
  • you intend using dichlorvos to treat infested grain – if lesser grain borer is present you need to apply the higher dose rate Insecticide sprays are not registered for oilseeds and pulses, so identification of pests in those grains is not so important.

Common species

Cereal grains

Cereal grains include wheat, barley, oats, triticale, sorghum and millets. The most common insect pests of stored cereal grains in Australia are:

  • Weevils: (Sitophilus spp.). Rice weevil is the most common weevil in wheat in Australia
  • Lesser Grain Borer: (Rhyzopertha dominica)
  • Rust Red Flour Beetle: (Tribolium spp.) • Sawtooth Grain Beetle: (Oryzaephilus spp.)
  • Flat Grain Beetle: (Cryptolestes spp.). See images in this DPI&F Note. Another dozen or so beetles, moths, psocids (booklice), and mites are sometimes present as pests in stored cereal grain.


Oilseeds include canola, linseed, safflower and sunflower. The most common pests in stored oilseeds are:

  • Flour beetles
  • Sawtoothed grain beetle
  • Moths of various species. See images in this DPI&F Note.


Pulses include: faba beans, chickpea, cowpea, field pea, mung bean, navy bean, soybean, pigeon pea. The most common insect pests of stored pulses are Bruchid beetles, and moths. See images in this DPI&F Note.


Weevils – the Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) is the most common weevil in wheat in Australia. Major pest of whole cereal grain and some solid cereal products, eg, pasta. Destroys grain directly and through heating. Approx. length adult: 3.5 – 4.0mm; Life cycle: 25 days@30°C & 70% r.h., 25 days; Population growth up to 25 x in a month; Eggs laid singly in prepared hole in grain; develops concealed within the grains; Adults fly & walk long distances; adults can walk up glass surfaces. Resistances to protectant OP insecticides is rare, phosphine resistance widespread, no known resistance to dichlorvos; can not be controlled with phosphine in unsealed silos.

Lesser Grain Borer ID

Lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica). Major pest of whole cereal grains, most serious in hot dry conditions; Resistance to OP insecticides – common; head invisible when viewed from above; approx. adult length 2.5 – 3.0mm; resistance to phosphine fumigation, strong and widespread; resistance to methoprene protectant insecticide is increasing, susceptible to new spinosad insecticide (available in 2006-07), resistance to dichlorvos is common; adults bore through grains; max. population growth rate per month 20x; larvae lives concealed in grain or flour; adults are strong fliers.

Red Rust Flour Beetle

Red rust flour beetle (Tribolium castineum). Major pest of stored grains and milled products; approx. adult length 3.5=4.0mm; survives very dry conditions; max. population growth rate per month 70x; larvae not concealed in grains; adults strong fliers; resistance to protectant OP insecticides is rare, no known resistance to dichlorvos, strong resistance to phosphine fumigant found in C.Q.

Sawtooth Grain Beetle

Sawtooth grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis). Major pest of stored grains and other stored products; approx. adult length 3.0mm; max. population growth rate per month 50x; Strong resistance to phosphine found in D. Downs, strong resistance to protectant OP insecticides is common, no known resistance yet to dichlorvos; adult feeds, flies, and walks long distances; adults can walk up glass surfaces.

Flat Grain Beetle

Flat grain beetle (Cryptolestes spp.). Important pest of stored grains and other stored products; adults very flat, antennae very long and hair-like; approx. adult length 3.0mm;resistance to protectant OP insecticides is untested, strong resistance to phosphine fumigant on Darling Downs and in Biloela district; max. population growth rate per month 55x; adults long lived, feeds, flies and walks rapidly.

Psocids bookline

Psocids – or booklice (Liposcelis spp.). Pronounced ‘so-kids’; important pest in grain storages in Australia; very tiny – about 1.0mm long; infest a wide range of stored grains and other commodities; appear as a ‘moving carpet of dust’ on grain; thrive under warm moist conditions, max. population growth rate per month 25x. Life cycle 21 days under ideal conditions; ‘secondary’ feeders, living on damaged grain etc., can cause heating of grain; huge infestations spread to structures and cause worker discomfort; if protectant insecticides fail to control psocids, expert identification of species involved is advisable; For further detail refer to special DPI&F


Mites (various species). Common pests in stored grains; occur mostly in damp or moist grain; Mould mite or Lemon-scented mite (Tyrophagus putriscentiae) – very tiny, about 0.5mm long. Appear as a moving carpet of brown dust on grains, bags, structures and floors; large populations may emit a pungent smell; life cycle is 8-12 days under ideal conditions, max. population growth rate per month 500x; more conspicuous at high moisture mouldy conditions. Feeding damages grains, promotes mould growth, imparts an ‘off’ odour, and may cause severe discomfort and dermatitis in workers. Protectant OP and methoprene insecticides not effective; resistance to dichlorvos untested; no known resistance to new spinosad protectant insecticide (on market 2006-07). Phosphine fumigation will only be successful if done in sealed, gas-tight storages.

Indian Meal Moth
Indian Meal Moth
(Plodia interpunctella). adults’ wings are bicoloured cream & brown, length approx. 8.0-9.0mm, larvae creamy white, approx. 12mm long; major pest in flour mills, processing plants etc., webbing produced by larvae can block machinery; max. population growth rate per month 60x; adult does not feed; active at dusk and dawn.

Angoumois Grain Moth
Angoumois grain moth
(Citotroga cerealella), and grain damage. Smaller than other storage moth pests, adults 5.0-6.0mm long; pest of whole cereal grains, will attack grains before harvest, esp. maize. Infests only surface layer of bulk-stored grains, adult unable to penetrate deeply. Max. population growth rate per month 50x. Larvae develop concealed in a single grain; adult moth does not feed. No known resistance to protectant OP’s, or new spinosad insecticide. Not susceptible to methoprene.

Cowpea Soybean Bruchid
Cowpea Bruchid
(Callosobruchus spp) in mungbean & Soybean Bruchid (Bruchidius mackenzii) in soybean. Bruchids are a major and increasing pest of pulse crops in Australia. In Northern region, Cowpea bruchid is a major problem to the mungbean industry. Adults are small, about 3.0mm long, with a tear-shaped body. Eggs are easily visible, white and laid on surface of individual beans. Larvae develop within the seeds, from where they emerge as adults, leaving a perfectly round hole in seeds. Adults are strong fliers and lay about 100 eggs in their 10-12 day lifespan. The soybean bruchid is now becoming more widespread in the soybean industry.

NOTE: For more detail on bruchid pests, see ‘Bruchids in Mungbeans and Other Pulse Crops – A Major Threat to the Pulse Grains Industry’


  • Insect drawings used above sourced from Degesch America Inc..
  • Some text regarding species above was sourced from, ‘Insects of Stored Grain – A Pocket Reference’, David Rees, (1994), Stored Grains Research Laboratory, CSIRO Division of Entomology, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia

Distinguishing between the common grain beetles

You can use a clean glass container as a simple test for identifying grain beetles. Put the live grain insects into a warm glass container (above 20oC so they are active, but not over 40oC or they will die). Weevils and sawtoothed grain beetles can walk up the walls of the glass easily, but flour beetles and lesser grain borer cannot. If you look closely at the insects walking up the glass, weevils have a curved snout at the front but sawtoothed grain beetles do not. Distinguishing between the species that can’t walk up the glass is more difficult. Lesser grain borers are cylindrical, dark brown and usually have their head tucked under their body.

Flour beetles and flat grain beetles are flatter, copper-brown, and their head usually protrudes in front of their body. Flat grain beetles are usually small, ant-like with long antennae. Flour beetles are larger with short antennae. Drawings of the common beetle pests and the steps in identifying them are shown on the next page. Most of the beetles other than the common species look something like the flour beetles, and should not be confused with the lesser grain borer if you know what the borer looks like.

Identification of common beetle pests of stored grain. Follow the steps from left to right

Identification of common beetle pest

Further information

You can find colour pictures and some information on insect pests of stored grain in:

  • ‘Insects of stored grain: a pocket reference’ by David Rees. CSIRO Division of Entomology (1994). The book is available from The Librarian, Stored Grain Research Laboratory, GPO Box 1700, Canberra ACT 2601, Tel 02 6246 4201, Fax 02 6246 4202.
  • ‘Insect pests of field crops in colour’ Queensland Department of Primary Industries Q18 3006 (1983). The book is available from DPI&F Client Service Centres
  • The entomology section of the AgWest web site
  • See the DPI&F Note ‘Grain Storage – Insect control in stored grain’, – for information on control methods.
  • ‘Bruchids in Mungbeans and other Pulse Crops – a Major Threat to the Pulse Grains Industry’, by Hugh Brier, Pat Collins, Phil Burrill and Mike Lucy, Ken Bullen, DPI&F.
  • DPI&F website  – for a comprehensive range of useful Notes on Grain Storage management on-farm
  • DPI&F Call Centre open from 8.00am to 6.00pm Monday to Friday (telephone 13 25 23 for the cost of a local call within Queensland; interstate callers 07 3404 6999) or email Or, phone one of the National Grain Storage Extension Team
    • Qld Peter Hughes or Ken Bullen 07 4688 1200
    • Qld Philip Burrill 07 4660 3620
    • Vic. Peter Botta 03 5761 1647
    • SA Peter Fulwood 08 8568 6422
    • WA Chris Newman 08 9366 2309
    • NSW John Cameron 02 9482 4930