ProFume® and VaporMate® are available alternatives to phosphine, however they can only be applied by a licensed fumigator. Carbon dioxide and nitrogen are ‘controlled atmosphere’ alternatives to phosphine which can be done by anyone providing they have access to the required equipment and knowledge. All of these alternatives require a gas-tight storage for successful control of insects and are currently more expensive than phosphine. For more information see the back pages of Fumigating with phosphine, other fumigants and controlled atmospheres